Parameters used in assessment of the marginal bone loss around dental implant among smokers in Iraq

Liqaa S. Farhan


The habit of smoking and tobacco use is a common complication worldwide.  It affect the systemic and oral health. In surgery it affect quality of supporting hard and soft tissue and mechanism of healing and lead to failure of surgery and success of bone graft. Smoking lead to failure of dental treatment because it accelerate the bone resorption and lead to peri-implantitis. So it is important to consider this problem because of health and economic sequence associated and to enhance overall success rate of dental implant.


Cigar Smokers ;Dental Implant; Marginal Bone Loss ; Oral care ;Peri-Implant Probing Depth


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