Anthropometric measures as predictors for elevated blood pressure in physical education and medical male college students, El-minia University, Egypt

Sayed F. El-Sheikh, Maher M. Kamel, Mohamed A. Desoky, El-Sayed A. Mahran, Nabil A. Al-sayed


Adolescents have a high and increasing burden of excess weight and hypertension. Lack of physical activity, social stress and sedentary life style are involved as risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The target of the study is to evaluate the anthropometric differences between physical education students and medical students after one or two years of study at El-minia University, Egypt and to know the most predicting anthropometric measures associated with blood pressure elevation in both groups. A cross sectional study was performed with a sample of 850 male students (50% medical students), of age between 18-19 years old. Anthropometric data was collected, including weight, stature, midarm, midchest, waist, hip circumferences, and skinfold thickness of biceps, triceps, subscapular, abdominal and suprailiac regions. Body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-stature ratio (WSR) were calculated. All anthropometric parameters indicating overweight and obesity were higher in medical than physical education students, including BMI (24.6±4.4 kg/m2 to 23.1±2.3 kg/m2), with significant level (p<0.05). Also the means of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly higher in medical students (mean of SBP= 122.5±13 mmHg, DBP= 78.9±9.5 mmHg), than physical education students (SBP= 118.9±8.5 mmHg, DBP= 76.4±7.3 mmHg). Midarm, midchest circumferences, lean mass (FM.BMI) and fat mass (FM.BMI) in medical students, while the hip circumference and subscapular skinfold in physical education students were the most valuable predictors for elevated blood pressure. Decreased physical activity and sedentary stressful life considered as risk factors for blood pressure elevation


blood pressure, excess weight, physical activity, students


Andersen, L. B., Harro, M., Sardinha, L. B., Froberg, K., Ekelund, U., Brage, S., & Anderssen, S. A. (2006). Physical activity and clustered cardiovascular risk in children: a cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study). The Lancet, 368(9532), 299-304.

Aounallah-Skhiri, H., J. El Ati, P. Traissac, H. B. Romdhane, S. Eymard-Duvernay, F. Delpeuch, N. Achour and B. Maire (2012). "Blood pressure and associated factors in a North African adolescent population. A national cross-sectional study in Tunisia." BMC Public Health 12(1): 98.

Arazi, H., Hoseini, R., & Behrozi, A. (2012). A comparison of body fat and blood pressure between physical education and non-physical education major male students. Facta universitatis-series: Physical Education and Sport, 10(2), 127-134.

Bacon, S. L., Sherwood, A., Hinderliter, A., & Blumenthal, J. A. (2004). Effects of exercise, diet and weight loss on high blood pressure. Sports Medicine, 34(5), 307-316.

Basterfield, L., Pearce, M. S., Adamson, A. J., Frary, J. K., Parkinson, K. N., Wright, C. M., . . . Team, G. M. S. C. (2012). Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and adiposity in English children. American journal of preventive medicine, 42(5), 445-451.

Bigaard, J., K. Frederiksen, A. Tjønneland, B. Thomsen, K. Overvad, B. L. Heitmann and T. I. Sørensen (2004). "Waist and hip circumferences and all-cause mortality: usefulness of the waist-to-hip ratio?" International journal of obesity 28(6): 741.

Bouchard C. Can obesity be prevented? Nutr Rev. (1996); 54:S125-S130.

Brown, S. P., W. C. Miller and J. M. Eason (2006). Exercise physiology: basis of human movement in health and disease, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Browning, L. M., S. D. Hsieh and M. Ashwell (2010). "A systematic review of waist-to-height ratio as a screening tool for the prediction of cardiovascular disease and diabetes: 0· 5 could be a suitable global boundary value." Nutrition research reviews 23(2): 247-269.

De Onis, M. (2017). Child growth and development. Nutrition and Health in a Developing World, Springer: 119-141.

Dwyer, T., & Gibbons, L. (1994). The Australian Schools Health and Fitness Survey. Physical fitness related to blood pressure but not lipoproteins. Circulation, 89(4), 1539-1544.


Haskell, W. L., I.-M. Lee, R. R. Pate, K. E. Powell, S. N. Blair, B. A. Franklin, C. A. Macera, G. W. Heath, P. D. Thompson and A. Bauman (2007). "Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association." Circulation 116(9): 1081.

Hastuti, J., N. T. Rahmawati and R. A. Suriyanto (2018). "Anthropometric Indicators for Blood Pressure and the Prevalence of Hypertension in Indonesian College Students Aged 18-25 Years." Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 17(4): 163-170.

Huxley, R. R., J. R. Misialek, S. K. Agarwal, L. R. Loehr, E. Z. Soliman, L. Y. Chen and A. Alonso (2014). "Physical activity, obesity, weight change, and risk of atrial fibrillation: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study." Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology 7(4): 620-625.

Kang, Y. S. (2013). Obesity associated hypertension: new insights into mechanism. Electrolytes & Blood Pressure, 11(2), 46-52.

Kyrou I, Chrousos GP, Tsigos C. Stress, visceral obesity, and metabolic complications. Ann NY Acad Sci 1083: 77–110, 2006.

Lee, C. M. Y., R. R. Huxley, R. P. Wildman and M. Woodward (2008). "Indices of abdominal obesity are better discriminators of cardiovascular risk factors than BMI: a meta-analysis." Journal of clinical epidemiology 61(7): 646-653

Martins, M. d. C. d. C., Ricarte, I. F., Rocha, C. H. L., Maia, R. B., Silva, V. B. d., Veras, A. B., & Souza Filho, M. D. d. (2010). Blood pressure, excess weight and level of physical activity in students of a public university. Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia, 95(2), 192-199.

McNiece, K. L., T. S. Poffenbarger, J. L. Turner, K. D. Franco, J. M. Sorof and R. J. Portman (2007). "Prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension among adolescents." The Journal of pediatrics 150(6): 640-644. e641.

Mokdad, A. H., E. S. Ford, B. A. Bowman, W. H. Dietz, F. Vinicor, V. S. Bales and J. S. Marks (2003). "Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001." Jama 289(1): 76-79.

Mushengezi, B. and P. Chillo (2014). "Association between body fat composition and blood pressure level among secondary school adolescents in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania." The Pan African medical journal 19.

Oduwole, A. A., T. A. Ladapo, I. B. Fajolu, E. N. Ekure and O. F. Adeniyi (2012). "Obesity and elevated blood pressure among adolescents in Lagos, Nigeria: a cross-sectional study." BMC Public Health 12(1): 616.

Olweus, D., Mattsson, Å., Schalling, D., & Loew, H. (1980). Testosterone, aggression, physical, and personality dimensions in normal adolescent males. Psychosomatic medicine.

Organization, W. H. (2000). Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic: World Health Organization.

Organization, W. H. (2011). Waist circumference and waist-hip ratio: report of a WHO expert consultation, Geneva, 8-11 December 2008.


Stamler, J. (1997). "The INTERSALT Study: background, methods, findings, and implications." The American journal of clinical nutrition 65(2): 626S-642S.

Vianna, M. V. A., Cáder, S. A., Gomes, A. L. M., Guimarães, A. C., Seixas-da-Silva, I. A., do Rêgo, A. R. d. O., . . . Dantas, E. H. M. (2012). Aerobic conditioning, blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI) of older participants of the Brazilian Family Health Program (FHP) after 16 weeks of guided physical activity. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 54(1), 210-213.

Wang, Z., S. Heshka, J. Wang, D. Gallagher, P. Deurenberg, Z. Chen and S. B. Heymsfield (2007). "Metabolically active portion of fat-free mass: a cellular body composition level modeling analysis." American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 292(1): E49-E53.

Wellens, R., R. Malina, A. Roche, W. Chumlea, S. Guo and R. Siervogel (1992). "Body size and fatness in young adults in relation to age at menarche." American journal of human biology 4(6): 783-787.

Yallamraju, S. R., R. Mehrotra, A. Sinha, S. R. Gattumeedhi, A. Gupta and S. V. Khadse (2014). "Use of mid upper arm circumference for evaluation of nutritional status of OSMF patients." Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry 4(Suppl 2): S122.

Zin, T., Yusuff, A. S. M., Myint, T., Naing, D. K., Htay, K., & Wynn, A. A. (2014). Body fat percentage, BMI and skinfold thickness among medical students in Sabah, Malaysia. South East Asia Journal of Public Health, 4(1), 35-40.


  • There are currently no refbacks.