Plasma Growth Differentiation Factor 15 and Advanced Glycation End Product (AGEs) in Diagnosis and Evaluation of Type 2 Diabetic Nephropathy

Maha T. Mohamed, Iglal M. Shawky, Mahmoud S. Abdel Aleem, Mahmoud R. Mohamed, Hend M. Moness

Abstract


Objective: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is considered one of the leading causes of end stage renal disease. The study was done to detect the plasma level of growth differentiation factor 15 and advanced glycation end products in patients of type 2 diabetic nephropathy and to assess their value in diagnosis and evaluation of type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Subjects: Current study included 150 type 2 diabetic patients and 30 apparently healthy subjects after informed written consent. Intervention: Patients are classified into normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria. Results: GDF-15 and AGES levels were significantly increased in type 2 diabetic patients and also, increased with the progression of albuminuria and diabetic nephropathy. Result of the ROC curve analysis of GDF-15 in prediction of renal dysfunction revealed that the optimum cutoff point is >38.6 (pg/ml), the area under curve was 84.0%, with a high significance (p. <0.001) and with a high sensitivity (81.3%), Specificity (80.0%). ROC curve analysis of AGES in prediction of renal dysfunction revealed that the optimal Cutoff point was ≥ 7.7 (pg/ml), the area under curve was 88.0%, with a high significance (p. <0.01) and with a high sensitivity (85.3%), Specificity (86.3%). Conclusion: GDF-15 and AGES had a high value in early diagnosis, evaluation and prediction of type 2 DN. with high sensitivity and specificity.

Keywords


Growth differentiation factor 15; advanced glycation end products; diabetic nephropathy; microalbuminuria; end stage renal disease.

References


Aldukhayel A. Prevalence of diabetic nephropathy among Type 2 diabetic patients in some of the Arab countries. Int J Health Sci (Qassim); 2017.11(1): 1–4.

International Diabetes Federation (IDF), Atlas of diabetes; 2017. Seventh edition.

Roshan B. and Stanton R. A story of microalbuminuria and diabetic nephropathy. J Nephropathol; 2013. 2(4): 234–240.

Currie G1, McKay G1, Delles C1. Biomarkers in diabetic nephropathy: Present and future. World J Diabetes. Dec 15; 2014. 5(6):763-76. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v5.i6.763.

Bonaca MP, Morrow DA, Braunwald E, Cannon CP, Jiang S, Breher S, et al. Growth differentiation factor-15 and risk of recurrent events in patients stabilized after acute coronary syndrome: observations from PROVE IT-TIMI 22. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 2011. 31 203–210.

Singh V. P., Anjana B, Nirmal S, and Amteshwar S. Advanced Glycation End Products and Diabetic Complications. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol; 2014.18(1): 1–14.

McCance D. Maillard reaction products and their relation to complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Journal of Clinical Investigators; 2013. 91, 2470-2478.

Inomat S, Haneda M, Moriya T, Katayama S, Iwamoto Y, Sakai H, et al. Revised criteria for the early diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy.Diabetic Nephropha Committee Nihon Jinzo Gakkai Shi. 2005.47(7):767-9.

American Diabetes Association (ADA). Microvascular complications and foot care. Sec. 9.InStandards of Medical Care in Diabetes. Diabetes Care; 2015. 38(Suppl. 1):S58–S66.

Li Hui, Fang GAO, Yaoming XUE, Yi QIAN. Value of plasma growth differentiation factor-15 in diagnosis and evaluation of type 2 diabetic nephropathy. J South Med Univ; 2014. 34(3): 387-390.

Hellemons M.E., Magdalena M, Ron T, Gansevoort, Robert H. Henning, et al. Growth-Differentiation Factor 15 Predicts Worsening of Albuminuria in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care; 2012.35:2340–2346.

Yamagishi S, Matsui T. Advanced glycation end products, oxidative stress and diabetic nephropathy,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity; 2010. vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 101–108.

Lajer M, Anders J, Lise T, Hans-Henrik P, and Peter R. Plasma Growth Differentiation Factor-15 Independently Predicts All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality As Well As Deterioration of Kidney Function in Type 1 Diabetic Patients With Nephropathy. Diabetes Care; 2010. 33(7): 1567-1572.

Beisswenger P.J., Scott K.H, Gregory B.R, Michael E.M, Stephen S, Rich M, et al. Early Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy Correlates With Methylglyoxal-Derived Advanced Glycation End Products. Diabetes Care; 2013. 36(10): 3234–3239.

Chang X, Hongmei Y, Hua B, Mingfeng X, Linshan Z, Jian G, et al. Serum retinol binding protein 4 is associated with visceral fat in human with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease without known diabetes: a cross-sectional study. Lipids Health Dis. 2015.14: 28.

Saulnier P-J., Kevin M.W, Scott H, Jennifer W.E, Stephanie K.T, William C, et al. Advanced Glycation End Products Predict Loss of Renal Function and Correlate With Lesions of Diabetic Kidney Disease in American Indians With Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes. 2016; 65(12): 3744–3753.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.